Category Archives: Peopling the world

The case for pre-Toba peoples reaching Australia is strengthened

The theory has been that it was post-Toba waves of humans which reached Australia around 40,000 years ago at the earliest. But evidence is emerging that humans were in Austalia at least 65,000 years ago. That would suggest that the first human Australians came either directly from a pre-Toba expansion or post-Toba from peoples in SE Asia who had themselves originated from a pre-Toba expansion. Continue reading

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80,000-120,000 year old modern humans in S China confirm many and older Out of Africa events

The single Out of Africa event for modern humans is clearly far too simplistic. It is also clear that there were many back to Africa movements as well. Humans expanded sometimes because their old habitats were no longer viable. But, it seems, humans also explored and expanded into new territories from regions of plenty and where they maintained some contact with where they had come from. Probably, just because they could. Continue reading

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Genetic evidence that Yamnayans spread across Europe 5,000 years ago supports linguistic steppe hypothesis

So it would seem that hunter-gatherers mixed with farmers from the east who spread across Europe about 9,000 years ago. They formed the first agricultural settlements. Then came the invasion of the nomadic Yamnaya culture around 5,000 years ago. The Yamnayans were much more individualistic than the peoples they replaced and gave rise to the prominence of the nuclear family and the development of large family holdings of cleared lands, rather than the clusters of people in village settlements. They came on horses and brought livestock. But by about 4,000 years ago they too were overrun by the warlike Sintashta. Continue reading

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Our Neanderthal genes may have come mainly from their females

So I imagine the decline of the Neanderthals taking some 20-30,000 years as AMH expanded westwards and the decline of the Denisovans probably starting a little later but taking somewhat less time. The encounters and admixing probably only occurred with the tribes and bands at the frontiers. Continue reading

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Further indications of multiple Out of Africa(rabia) events

That indicates that these windows for movement were available at regular 23,000 year intervals from about 200,000 years ago. This study provides further indications that AMH moved into Arabia over 100,000 years ago and that there may well have been multiple expansions out of Arabia as well. Continue reading

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Chinese teeth support pre- and post-Toba dispersals of modern humans

It is becoming increasingly likely that there were at least two major dispersals of modern humans Out of Africa and through Arabia (Out of Africarabia). The first was prior to the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago and possibly around 130,000 years ago and the second, post-Toba expansion around 60-70,000 years ago. Continue reading

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Peopling the New World Arctic

All Paleo-Eskimos represent a single migration pulse from Siberia into the Americas, independent of the Neo-Eskimo Thule people (ancestors of modern-day Inuit) and the related extinct Sadlermiut population. The Siberian Birnirk people were likely cultural and genetic ancestors of modern-day Inuit. Continue reading

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