Author Archives: ktwop

About ktwop

Scientist, technologist, salesman, manager, executive and now a consultant and author.

Rope making more than 40,000 years old

If they had rope and twine, they had thread. If they had thread, they probably had some form of garments. If they had twine, they had the “technology” for bows and arrows. If they had rope they would also have had the capability to drag heavy weights across primitive rollers. Continue reading

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Posted in AMH, Origins and inventions | Tagged | 1 Comment

Harappan civilisation started earlier, lasted longer

What is striking is how the two great rivers, the Indus and the Saraswati (Ghaggar or Hakra), totally dominated the landscape. It is not surprising that an advanced water management “technology” developed. The growth of managed agriculture and trade followed. The period of intensified monsoon from 7,000 BCE to about 5,000 BCE could have been a time of plenty which promoted growth and settlement. Continue reading

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When humans were prey for hyenas

Human ancestors had rudimentary control of fire some 1.5 – 2 million years ago, and that was the single event that led to the inevitable journey to becoming the dominant species. But though fire made dominance inevitable, it was a slow process. A new paper shows that tooth marks on the bones of a 500,000 year old hominin were caused by a large carnivore and indicating that the hominin had been consumed. Continue reading

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An Indus-Saraswati Valley map

A detailed map of the Indus-Saraswati Valley showing pre-harappan, Harappan and post Harappan sites and the presumed course of the river Saraswati. Continue reading

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Dog domestication — the real story

Dog domestication Continue reading

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Finding Harappan ancestors

This intermingling over about 1000 years, of Harappans with those already settled from previously blended populations (pre and post-Toba) is probably one of the key gene dispersal mechanisms on the sub-continent. Continue reading

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80,000-120,000 year old modern humans in S China confirm many and older Out of Africa events

The single Out of Africa event for modern humans is clearly far too simplistic. It is also clear that there were many back to Africa movements as well. Humans expanded sometimes because their old habitats were no longer viable. But, it seems, humans also explored and expanded into new territories from regions of plenty and where they maintained some contact with where they had come from. Probably, just because they could. Continue reading

Posted in AMH, Denisovans, Neanderthals, Peopling the world | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment