Author Archives: ktwop

About ktwop

Scientist, technologist, salesman, manager, executive and now a consultant and author.

Hominid genetics get more complex

The human genetic story now goes back to times from which there is little or no archaeological record. It seems that some Neanderthals may well have had speech even if not any well developed language. The control of fire goes back some 400,000+ years ago. Stone tools were around from around 1.8 million years ago. Perhaps the beginnings of modern humans does not have to start so far back, but it does look like the story of homo sapiens now needs to be pushed backwards into time to at least the common hominin ancestor from around a million years ago. Continue reading

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Posted in AMH, Ancestors, Denisovans, Evolution, Neanderthals | Tagged | 1 Comment

Bread from 14,400 years ago suggests a long transition to the Neolithic

The transition from hunter-gatherers to settled agriculturalists was a long period which may well have started some 50,000 years ago and evolved through a form of transient agriculture. to eventually reach settled agriculture around 12-10,000 years ago. Continue reading

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Aboriginals stagnated for 50,000 years as hunter-gatherers and missed the agricultural revolution

It may not be politically correct to say so but the reality is that before the colonisation by Europeans, the Australian Aboriginals were in a cultural and genetic dead-end. Continue reading

Posted in Agriculture, Ancestors | Tagged | 4 Comments

The single Out-of-Africa theory is dying

The single Out-of-Africa theory is dying if not completely dead. Certainly some of the earlier excursions out of Africa may not have survived. I am still sticking to my narrative of the peopling of the world being mainly due to (at least) two waves of expansion from AfricArabia; one before the Toba eruption (74,000 years ago) and one after. Continue reading

Posted in AMH, Peopling the world | Tagged , | 5 Comments

The Peopling of Asia

The traditional “out of Africa” model, which posits a dispersal of modern Homo sapiens across Eurasia as a single wave at ~60,000 years ago and the subsequent replacement of all indigenous populations, is in need of revision. Continue reading

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The case for pre-Toba peoples reaching Australia is strengthened

The theory has been that it was post-Toba waves of humans which reached Australia around 40,000 years ago at the earliest. But evidence is emerging that humans were in Austalia at least 65,000 years ago. That would suggest that the first human Australians came either directly from a pre-Toba expansion or post-Toba from peoples in SE Asia who had themselves originated from a pre-Toba expansion. Continue reading

Posted in Ancestors, Peopling the world | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

The peopling of the Indian sub-continent

I suspect that the origins of Hinduism and guild-based caste system lies here in the clash and interaction and intermixing of the proto-Dravidian speaking hunter gatherers and the Indo-European speaking agricultarlists, with the Indis-Saraswati Valley being the melting pot rather than a battle ground. Continue reading

Posted in Ancestors, Peopling the sub-continent | Tagged , | 3 Comments