Author Archives: ktwop

About ktwop

Scientist, technologist, salesman, manager, executive and now a consultant and author.

The case for pre-Toba peoples reaching Australia is strengthened

The theory has been that it was post-Toba waves of humans which reached Australia around 40,000 years ago at the earliest. But evidence is emerging that humans were in Austalia at least 65,000 years ago. That would suggest that the first human Australians came either directly from a pre-Toba expansion or post-Toba from peoples in SE Asia who had themselves originated from a pre-Toba expansion. Continue reading

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The peopling of the Indian sub-continent

I suspect that the origins of Hinduism and guild-based caste system lies here in the clash and interaction and intermixing of the proto-Dravidian speaking hunter gatherers and the Indo-European speaking agricultarlists, with the Indis-Saraswati Valley being the melting pot rather than a battle ground. Continue reading

Posted in Ancestors, Peopling the sub-continent | Tagged , | 2 Comments

From agriculture to gardens

The shift from hunter-gatherers to agriculturalists is thought to have started around 12,000 years ago (Neolithic – New Stone Age). But I suspect that just 8,000 years for the development from intentional cultivation to purely decorative gardens may be an underestimate. Continue reading

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Spread of agriculture was not only by migration but also by diffusion

The Baltic region developed agriculture before the large migrations of the bronze age. The Neolithic transition therefore was not only by migration (as in Southern Europe) but also by the diffusion of culture to hunter gatherers in the Baltic region. Continue reading

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Yellow River sedimentary evidence dates the Great Flood of China, and the start of the Xia dynasty, at 1920 BCE

The earliest historical records of Yu start only about 1,000 years after his death. It was thought that Yu lived around 2,200 BCE. A new paper in Science reports on studies of Yellow River sediments and suggest that the cause of the flood was a landslide, caused by an earthquake, that planted a massive natural dam across the Yellow River where it travels through the Jishi Gorge after emerging from the Tibetan plateau. Continue reading

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Rope making more than 40,000 years old

If they had rope and twine, they had thread. If they had thread, they probably had some form of garments. If they had twine, they had the “technology” for bows and arrows. If they had rope they would also have had the capability to drag heavy weights across primitive rollers. Continue reading

Posted in AMH, Origins and inventions | Tagged | 1 Comment

Harappan civilisation started earlier, lasted longer

What is striking is how the two great rivers, the Indus and the Saraswati (Ghaggar or Hakra), totally dominated the landscape. It is not surprising that an advanced water management “technology” developed. The growth of managed agriculture and trade followed. The period of intensified monsoon from 7,000 BCE to about 5,000 BCE could have been a time of plenty which promoted growth and settlement. Continue reading

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