Australian Aboriginals are regarded in a very romantic light these days but the reality is that they are an example of a human population which, whether for cultural or genetic reasons or both, missed the agricultural revolution which swept the world between 10 and 15,000 years ago. They are an example of a human population which remained isolated for 50,000 years and which eked out a survival as hunter-gatherers and did not develop either cognitively or in technology. The colonisation which followed the rediscovery of Australia in 1606 (or 1592?) met no resistance from an indigenous population that was in any way capable of protecting their habitat. They were still hunter-gatherers then – and fairly backward hunter-gatherers at that.
How Did Aboriginal Australians Arrive on the Continent? DNA Helps Solve a Mystery
By Carl Zimmer, March 8, 2017
Human skeletons and archaeological remains in Australia can be traced back nearly 50,000 years before the trail disappears. Before then, apparently, Australia was free of humans. So how did people get there, and when? Where did humans first arrive on the continent, and how did they spread across the entire landmass?
Answers to some of these questions are stored in the DNA of Aboriginal Australians. A genetic study of 111 Aboriginal Australians, published on Wednesday, offers an interesting — and, in some respects, unexpected — view of their remarkable story. All living Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that arrived about 50,000 years ago, the study shows. They swept around the continent, along the coasts, in a matter of centuries. And yet, for tens of thousands of years after, those populations remained isolated, rarely mixing.
The DNA used in the new study comes from aboriginal hair collected during a series of expeditions between 1926 and 1963. The Board for Anthropological Research at the University of Adelaide sent researchers to communities across Australia, where they collected vast amounts of information about aboriginal languages, ceremonies, artwork, cosmologies and genealogy. …….
………… Fifty thousand years ago, sea levels were so low that Australia and New Guinea formed a single continent. Humans moved from Southeast Asia onto this landmass, some settling in what is now New Guinea, others traveling farther south into Australia.
They kept to the coastlines until they reached southern Australia 49,000 years ago. But once this great migration was finished, the new study suggests, the ancestors of today’s aborigines hunkered down in their new homes — for tens of thousands of years.
The mitochondrial DNA contains no evidence that these populations mixed in any significant way, …………
Farming explains the difference, Dr. Cooper suggests. Unlike Africa, Asia and Europe, Australia did not experience the rise of agriculture several thousand years ago. “If you don’t have cheap carbohydrates, you don’t increase in population size,” he said.
Populations grew on other continents, but they often risked catastrophic crop failure. When that happened, Dr. Cooper said, “there’s only one response — mass migration.” In Australia, however, aborigines did not depend on crops and lived as nomads in discrete regions. They never needed to move across the continent.
So the narrative is of ancient but anatomically modern humans arriving in Australia when sea levels were low, spreading around the coast, but then of becoming fairly sedentary local populations without much intercourse with each other, let alone with any non-Australian populations. They eked out a survival as hunter-gatherers. They had neither the impetus of cultural exchange or of any genetic exchange with other populations to instigate development. The agricultural revolution that swept the rest of the world never happened for them. Without access to carbohydrates the population never grew significantly. Language existed as did some pictorial representations but writing never took off. Without farming and its attendant population growth, settlements never developed to become towns or cities. There was no surplus to drive specialisation. There was no development of any significance for 50,000 years and there were no cultural or genetic impulses which could lead to development.
It may not be politically correct to say so but the reality is that before the colonisation by Europeans, the Australian Aboriginals were in a cultural and genetic dead-end.
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