I have a macro-picture of the peopling of the sub-continent that seems plausible and consistent with current evidence. The entire sub-continent was peopled by hominin peoples long before the Toba eruption of 74,000 years ago. Whether any survived after the eruption is debatable but tools found above the ash layers suggest that some did. Whether these pre-Toba hominin were AMH (anatomically modern humans) or a precursor to AMH or an extinct branch is also uncertain. However the indications that there were many waves of AMH out of Afric-Arabia from about 110,000 years ago and later, suggests to me that there was an initial wave (waves?) which reached the sub-continent (and points further east) before the Toba eruption. Most but not all of these perished then, but some probably survived. Further waves of AMH arrived post-Toba (70- 50,000 years ago) and probably in many waves from the North-West. The settlements which later became the Indus-Saraswati Valley civilisation started arriving in the North West from a fertile Persian Gulf (where sea levels were 50 – 100 m lower than today) after the end of the last glaciation around 10 – 12,000 years ago. These were the first real agriculturalists and they gradually assimilated or displaced the existing populations southwards. The existing populations at that time were already admixtures of several waves of pre-Toba and post-Toba migrations. The migrants from the North-West brought with them the proto-Indo-European language which later became Sanskrit. The displaced peoples took away with them their own proto-Dravidian languages already to some extent infected with some proto-Indo-European. It was with desertification of the Thar that the Indus-Saraswati Valley civilisation (the Harappans) disappeared, most probably by gradual dissemination south and east over a period of some 1,000 years. The influence of the Harappans was probably being disseminated south and east along the waterways even at the height of their civilisation (5,000 years ago).
This looks like a sign of the arrival of the first Indo-European speakers, who arose amongst the Bronze Age peoples of the grasslands north of the Caucasus, between the Black and Caspian Seas. They were male-dominated, mobile pastoralists who had domesticated the horse ……
I suspect that the origins of Hinduism and guild-based caste system lies here in the clash and interaction and intermixing of the proto-Dravidian speaking hunter gatherers and the Indo-European speaking agricultarlists, with the Indis-Saraswati Valley being the melting pot rather than a battle ground.
A new paper looks at the genetic chronology of the sub-continent based on present day genes.
Marina Silva et al, A genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersals. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2017; 17 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12862-017-0936-9
IN addition to its vast patchwork of languages, cultures and religions, the Indian Subcontinent also harbours huge genetic diversity. Where did its peoples originate? This is an area of huge controversy among scholars and scientists. A University of Huddersfield PhD student is lead author of an article that tries to answer the question using genetic evidence.
A problem confronting archaeogenetic research into the origins of Indian populations is that there is a dearth of sources, such as preserved skeletal remains that can provide ancient DNA samples. Marina Silva and her co-authors have instead focused on people alive in the Subcontinent today.
They show that some genetic lineages in South Asia are very ancient. The earliest populations were hunter-gatherers who arrived from Africa, where modern humans arose, more than 50,000 years ago. But further waves of settlement came from the direction of Iran, after the last Ice Age ended 10-20,000 years ago, and with the spread of early farming.
These ancient signatures are most clearly seen in the mitochondrial DNA, which tracks the female line of descent. But Y-chromosome variation, which tracks the male line, is very different. Here the major signatures are much more recent. Most controversially, there is a strong signal of immigration from Central Asia, less than 5,000 years ago.
This looks like a sign of the arrival of the first Indo-European speakers, who arose amongst the Bronze Age peoples of the grasslands north of the Caucasus, between the Black and Caspian Seas. They were male-dominated, mobile pastoralists who had domesticated the horse – and spoke what ultimately became Sanskrit, the language of classical Hinduism – which more than 200 years ago linguists showed is ultimately related to classical Greek and Latin.
Migrations from the same source also shaped the settlement of Europe and its languages, and this has been the subject of most recent research, said Marina Silva. She has tried to tip the balance back towards India, and her findings are discussed in the article titled A genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersals. It appears in the journal BMC Evolutionary Biology.
Authors of the new article include Professor Martin Richards, who heads the University of Huddersfield’s Archaeogenetics Research Group. Member of the group are also co-authors of another recent paper, which focuses in depth on just one of the lineages found in India, Origin and spread of mitochondrial haplogroup U7, which has just appeared in the journal Scientific Reports.